Diabetes occurs in people with a predisposition due to changes in hormones during pregnancy. Diabetes is seen in 6-7% of all pregnancies according to the characteristics of the society. 90% of these are gestational, that is, diabetes that occurs during pregnancy.
The incidence is higher in mothers over the age of 35, obese, previously gave birth to portly babies or those with diabetes occurring during pregnancy, and those with a family member with diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is detected by the oral glucose tolerance test performed at 24-28 weeks of gestation. These tests are performed in every pregnancy. Diagnostic test of gestational diabetes, whose real scientific name is “Glucose Tolerance Test”, which is known as oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy, does not harm the mother or the fetus.
Oral glucose tolerance test is done in one stage or two stages. In the 75 g glucose single stage loading test, blood values are measured at the 1st and 2nd hour after sugar is drunk after 8 hours of fasting.
On the other hand, the 50 g sugar test is the test performed without hunger and the blood glucose is measured at the 1st hour and if it is high, it is the tests where the blood glucose values of 100 g at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd hours are checked. Tests that only examine pre-prandial and postprandial blood glucose are not an alternative to these tests.
In patients with gestational diabetes, the treatment is to keep blood sugar regulation at normal levels with diet and exercise. If it is not successful, insulin should be applied in the treatment. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is taught at home and medical nutrition therapy is explained.
The purpose of medical nutrition therapy is to regulate the carbohydrate, protein and fat balance in the diet of the pregnant woman. It is aimed to keep pre-prandial blood glucose below 95 mg / dl and to keep the 1st hour postprandial blood glucose below 145 and the 2nd hour postprandial blood glucose below 125.
If the targeted blood glucose levels are not reached with medical nutrition therapy and exercise, insulin therapy is recommended for the pregnant woman. After the insulin is started, the pregnant woman should continue to diet and measure blood glucose by herself.